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What are access arrangements?   A guide for candidates with disabilities and learning difficulties

  A brief guide for  candidates of GCSE  & IGCSEs, A Levels and IB exams.  Access arrangements are special adjustments for candidates with disabilities and learning difficulties. These adjustments refer to ways of testing in examinations. Examinations involve internal school tests, mock examinations as well as formal examinations such as GCSE, IGCSE, A levels, IB. The purpose of an access arrangement is to ensure that all candidates have equal access to exams. Therefore,  the candidate who is disabled can receive recognition for his/her attainment. Otherwise, he/she would be at a substantial disadvantage in comparison to someone who is not disabled. According to the Equality Act 2010/Section 6 (Appendix I) disability is defined as  a ‘physical or mental impairment which has a substantial and long term adverse effect on someone’s ability to carry out normal day to day activities’. Access arrangements are agreed upon before an assessment. Reasonable adjustments must not, however, affect the reliability or validity of assessment outcomes nor must they give the learner an unfair assessment advantage over other learners undertaking the same or similar assessments.   Adjustments for candidates with disabilities and learning difficulties The candidate must have an impairment in their first language which has a substantial and long term adverse effect. A candidate does not have a learning difficulty simply because their first language is not English. Candidates with Disabilities and Learning Difficulties may have Cognition and Learning Needs, e.g. General and/or Specific Learning Difficulties Communication and Interaction Needs, e.g. Autistic Spectrum Disorder , Speech, Language and Communication Needs Sensory and Physical Needs, e.g. Hearing Impairment , Multi-Sensory Impairment, Physical Disability, Vision Impairment Social, Mental and...
PSYCHANALYTIC IDEAS IN SYSTEMIC THERAPY: A CASE STUDY

PSYCHANALYTIC IDEAS IN SYSTEMIC THERAPY: A CASE STUDY

 Eva Evangelopouloua, Maria Karantonib a Psychotherapist, Hellenic Institute of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescence, Athens, Greece b Psychologist, Department of Child Psychiatry, Tzaneio General Hospital, Piraeus, Greece   Abstract In families we see interpersonal and intrapersonal levels as intertwined. Thus emerges the need to address both. Quite often, when working systemically with families and couples we have come across areas which go beyond systemic theory in its making. In this paper we identify some of these issues: that of emotional experience and of therapeutic relationship.  We present a case study, a married couple (male and female) in therapy with two female therapists. We discuss our work with relational triangles, circular questioning, here-and-now interactions as we investigate circular causality at multiple levels of interaction; within the individual (intra-psychic level), in the family (interpersonal), in the therapeutic system (therapists and clients), at an intergenerational level. With the instances presented we show how epistemology on intra-psychic experience and ‘being in a relationship’ accommodate interpersonal interventions, quite often a pathway necessary to bring about change.  We present our ideas as they have emerged from necessities of practice and are intrigued by the intersections between analytic and systemic contexts.                                 “How do couples pair and function?” Marriage is a rule-governed system (not an altogether conscious one) in which “each party must receive something for what he gives and which, consequently, defines the rights and duties of the parties in the bargain” (Jackson, 1965 cited in Gerson, 2010, p.66). A marital and couple relationship in the western culture involves personal investment, a shared history and the emotional pressure of ‘making it work’. In other...