Άντζελα Καραντώνη 697 260 6520 - Μαρία Καραντώνη 694 465 4816 angelakarantoni@yahoo.com
Positive thinking Changes Behaviour Part 3

Positive thinking Changes Behaviour Part 3

Positive thinking Changes Behaviour Part Three: The Pygmalion Effect Rosenthal, a famous psychologist, and his team have demonstrated how this works by performing a simple experiment. The results from this experiment are also known as the Pygmalion Effect. At a California elementary school teachers were told which of their students were “bright” compared to their classmates based on their performance at an IQ test. In reality, students described as “bright” were randomly chosen by the experimenters. They were not actually the ones who achieved higher scores, but a random selection from the group of students. At the end of the year, students were re-tested. The results showed a significant improvement of the so-called “bright” students over the rest of the class. This led to the conclusion that students seen as good and motivated learners by their teacher actually improved their performance. Teachers’ behaviours and expectations seriously affected students in a positive way, both with their learning, their behaviour and their self-esteem. This was attributes to the fact that teachers behaved in ways that encouraged the students’ success. They paid closer attention and treated children differently in times of difficulty. Modern developments in the field of neuroscience have shown us something remarkable. Even in these “as if” situations where the environment is positive and supportive, neural pathways in the brain still register messages as positive and allow positive...

Positive thinking Changes Behaviour Part 2

Positive thinking Changes Behaviour Part Two: Why Positive Thinking effects Behaviour in a Positive Way. Recent research and theory explains us why and how this works. All humans are part of networks. Our brains are interconnected; we influence but also are influenced by others as we are interconnected from the moment we are conceived. An infant’s brain is partly formed at birth by the relationship it has with its mother and father. A mother’s smile changes the chemistry in a baby’s brain and it elicits a response. We physically change each other through our interactions with each other…. How is this so? All experience is stored in our brain. Deep in the middle of our brain, in the limbic system. Experiences are stored as memories, in a part of the limbic system called the Hippocampus. The Hippocampus is adjacent to another very important part of the brain called Amygdala, the part responsible for basic emotions: fear, anger, pleasure, shame, disgust, surprise, sadness. We store our experiences as memories but we also store how these experiences made us feel. This is called an emotional experience. We may have a positive or negative emotional experience. Did what happen make me feel joyful, serene, proud or did it make me feel unhappy, desperate, humiliated? We learn to live by these experiences, they are sort of like a map or a compass. They prepare us how to react in any similar future situation. They help us survive, they direct us how to respond, react, adjust, adapt and live our lives understand others and the world around us… So, every message from the environment...
Positive Thinking Changes Behaviour Part 1

Positive Thinking Changes Behaviour Part 1

Positive Thinking Changes Behaviour Part One: Try this at home Think about what you are proud about in your child’s life. Think about everyday behaviours that make you proud, it might be just little things. Is it telling you how he managed to score at his favourite computer game? is it offering grandma a flower from the garden? is it spending time playing with legos in her room? is it telling mum a good joke? spending time alone relaxing? Now think: What abilities and skills does one need to have in order to display these behaviours? Think positive. Think why you appreciate this kind of behaviour. For example: Talking about a computer game shows…. my son knows how to talk and share things about himself. Offering a flower shows….. my daughter is thoughtful and kind. Telling a good joke means….. he’s got a sense of humour. Think of attributes such as “imaginative”, “resourceful”, “self-contented”, “calm”, “happy”, “bright”… Talk about these attributes you have noticed in your child. Explain how these behaviours make you proud. And how these show how there are so many good things about her. Then make a list. Choose 4 attributes and write them on a sheet of paper. For example, joyful, helpful, thoughtful, kind. Put the list somewhere you can see. The fridge door is a good place. Every time you notice any one of these attributes during the day, place a star beside that particular ability. Your child will watch her abilities grow. This little task will have a great effect on children and will encourage positive behaviour! Based on Readings from: Elispeth Mc...

What are access arrangements?   A guide for candidates with disabilities and learning difficulties

  A brief guide for  candidates of GCSE  & IGCSEs, A Levels and IB exams.  Access arrangements are special adjustments for candidates with disabilities and learning difficulties. These adjustments refer to ways of testing in examinations. Examinations involve internal school tests, mock examinations as well as formal examinations such as GCSE, IGCSE, A levels, IB. The purpose of an access arrangement is to ensure that all candidates have equal access to exams. Therefore,  the candidate who is disabled can receive recognition for his/her attainment. Otherwise, he/she would be at a substantial disadvantage in comparison to someone who is not disabled. According to the Equality Act 2010/Section 6 (Appendix I) disability is defined as  a ‘physical or mental impairment which has a substantial and long term adverse effect on someone’s ability to carry out normal day to day activities’. Access arrangements are agreed upon before an assessment. Reasonable adjustments must not, however, affect the reliability or validity of assessment outcomes nor must they give the learner an unfair assessment advantage over other learners undertaking the same or similar assessments.   Adjustments for candidates with disabilities and learning difficulties The candidate must have an impairment in their first language which has a substantial and long term adverse effect. A candidate does not have a learning difficulty simply because their first language is not English. Candidates with Disabilities and Learning Difficulties may have Cognition and Learning Needs, e.g. General and/or Specific Learning Difficulties Communication and Interaction Needs, e.g. Autistic Spectrum Disorder , Speech, Language and Communication Needs Sensory and Physical Needs, e.g. Hearing Impairment , Multi-Sensory Impairment, Physical Disability, Vision Impairment Social, Mental and...
PSYCHANALYTIC IDEAS IN SYSTEMIC THERAPY: A CASE STUDY

PSYCHANALYTIC IDEAS IN SYSTEMIC THERAPY: A CASE STUDY

 Eva Evangelopouloua, Maria Karantonib a Psychotherapist, Hellenic Institute of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescence, Athens, Greece b Psychologist, Department of Child Psychiatry, Tzaneio General Hospital, Piraeus, Greece   Abstract In families we see interpersonal and intrapersonal levels as intertwined. Thus emerges the need to address both. Quite often, when working systemically with families and couples we have come across areas which go beyond systemic theory in its making. In this paper we identify some of these issues: that of emotional experience and of therapeutic relationship.  We present a case study, a married couple (male and female) in therapy with two female therapists. We discuss our work with relational triangles, circular questioning, here-and-now interactions as we investigate circular causality at multiple levels of interaction; within the individual (intra-psychic level), in the family (interpersonal), in the therapeutic system (therapists and clients), at an intergenerational level. With the instances presented we show how epistemology on intra-psychic experience and ‘being in a relationship’ accommodate interpersonal interventions, quite often a pathway necessary to bring about change.  We present our ideas as they have emerged from necessities of practice and are intrigued by the intersections between analytic and systemic contexts.                                 “How do couples pair and function?” Marriage is a rule-governed system (not an altogether conscious one) in which “each party must receive something for what he gives and which, consequently, defines the rights and duties of the parties in the bargain” (Jackson, 1965 cited in Gerson, 2010, p.66). A marital and couple relationship in the western culture involves personal investment, a shared history and the emotional pressure of ‘making it work’. In other...